Exports of electronic and electrical products are seriously affected by new reforms

The EU's two "instructions" are the relevant regulations, policies, and measures to harmonize the disposal of end-of-life electronic and electronic equipment and use of electronic equipment containing harmful substances within the European Union. They are also a technical barrier to imported equipment and will seriously affect China's electronics. Electrical product exports. From another perspective, the implementation of the two "instructions" will also promote the technological advancement of China's electronic and electrical industries, improve the technical composition of electronic and electrical products, and adjust the product structure.

Electronic and electrical product exports are seriously threatened

The EU's two "instructions" cover a wide range of products. Electronic products include information technology and communication equipment such as television sets, video recorders, radios, personal computers, and facsimiles, as well as recording and copying equipment that transmits sound and image technology other than telecommunications; mechanical products include a variety of electrical products. Most of these products are the leading products of China's exports.

The EU is one of the important markets for the export of mechanical and electrical products in China. In 2002, China’s export of mechanical and electrical products was US$26.97 billion, accounting for 17.2% of the total exports of mechanical and electrical products; in the first half of 2003, the export of mechanical and electrical products to the EU was US$18.18 billion, an increase of 59.1 compared with the same period of the previous year. %, accounting for 18.9% of total exports of mechanical and electrical products. This new measure adopted by the European Union will surely form a trade barrier on China's export products, with a serious negative impact. Moreover, this action by the EU is likely to be used by the United States, Japan, and other major trading partners to adopt similar measures, which will have a more serious impact on the production of mechanical and electrical products. Therefore, we must attach great importance to this issue and actively take effective measures.

New requirements for electrical base and base materials

According to insiders, the six kinds of harmful substances that are banned by the EU involve many products. From the perspective of the production chain, the technical composition of these ten types of electronic and electrical products. Can not be separated from the electrical basic parts and basic materials, it involves low-voltage electrical appliances, electrical accessories, insulation materials, electrical alloys, small and medium-sized motors, electronically controlled servo, wire and cable, power tools, welding machines, transformers, relay protection, explosion-proof electrical appliances, More than 20 small industries, such as heat shrinkable materials, have a great impact. For example, silver oxidized cadmium in our electrical contact materials (cadmium has been regulated by the European Union as one of the six hazardous substances that are banned) has been widely used in AC contactors, DC contactors, air circuit breakers, current limiting and leakage currents. Switches, frame circuit breakers, relays, pushbutton switches, and household appliances. In civil power consumption equipment, there are almost all harmful substances that are banned by the EU. According to the relevant information, the best substitute for silver cadmium oxide is silver tin oxide. The first breakthrough and most mature technology in this technology is the German company Degussa. At present, only one or two scientific research units can solve this technical problem in our country, and the output is very small. Therefore, these measures of the European Union will also promote China's adjustment of the development of related industries. In particular, it will greatly promote the technical progress of basic electrical components and basic materials, accelerate the development of research and development, improve the technical composition of products, and adjust the product structure.

Several countermeasures and suggestions for actively responding to barriers

The relevant departments took the lead and actively conducted investigations and assessments. It is suggested that the relevant government departments should pay close attention to the competent authorities and industry associations of the same industry to study and analyze the situation of China's exports of EU electromechanical products, and further clarify the product range of the two “instructions” (the EU should be required to provide internationally common import and export tariff tariff numbers). First of all, for products with large export volume, relevant organizations (such as national commodity inspection laboratories, product quality inspection centers, etc.) shall be organized to detect and analyze the six kinds of hazardous substances contained in the above-mentioned export products, evaluate the impact, and take corresponding measures.

Urgently initiate strategic research and develop development plans. It is recommended that relevant government departments formulate scientific and technological development plans and new product development plans for replacing the above-mentioned hazardous substances. In particular, they attach great importance to the research and development of electrical basic parts and basic materials, including insulation materials, electrical alloys, wire and cable, batteries, and other batteries. The organization focuses on key issues, and gives policy concessions and financial support (this kind of financing is allowed under the WTO rules) to accelerate development.

First of all, it is necessary to analyze whether the above equipment, materials, and components contain the above hazardous substances. Those that are part of the outsourcing kits should be submitted to the relevant manufacturers and suppliers for analysis, evaluation, and measures; they belong to processing trade materials or processing materials for export. It is necessary to ask the partner to study and take measures.

Second, manufacturing companies that contain the above-mentioned hazardous substances products must organize research on product design units, find alternatives, and modify product technology standards. In particular, electrical products cover a wide range of fields. They must start with basic parts and basic materials, and introduce new technologies through joint research and development or joint ventures with foreign companies, and innovate on the basis of digestion and absorption. Batteries and power tools are two major exporters in the electrical appliance industry, especially lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries, and some power tools (cadmium in plastic cases, and small amounts of lead in printed circuit boards). Look for alternatives, develop new products, and revise product technical standards and conformity assessment procedures for early implementation. If some pests can not find substitutes for a while, they can report to the relevant government departments in China and consult with the EU again.

Comment on the unreasonable part of the EU's two “instructions”. If the cost of recycling should not be borne by the producers, recycling should be socialized; the recovery rate is too high, especially for developing countries; there must be some differences between reuse and recycling. It is suggested that the relevant government departments of our country consult with the EU to seek solutions. If necessary, submit the WTO Dispute Settlement Mechanism decision.

Formulate corresponding national laws and regulations. In order to protect China's environment, protect people's health and safety, and protect the development of the electromechanical industry, we should, in accordance with China's economic development level and product technology level, refer to the EU's practices, formulate corresponding environmental protection laws and regulations that suit China's actual conditions, and formulate plans and gradually implement them. . At the same time, we must pay attention to the collection of research on other countries related to this situation, understand the implementation of the two "instructions" and the use of alternatives in EU member states, establish an information platform, study and formulate national technical standards and conformity assessment procedures for related products .

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