China's export of low-voltage electrical products involves standards
Low-voltage electrical product standards are mainly divided into four major standard systems internationally, namely IEC standard system, EN standard system, North American standard system, and Chinese and Japanese standards. The former is an international standard system, and the latter three are regional standard systems. The regional-based standard system is mainly formed by developed countries and regions, and the remaining developing countries and regions have not yet formed a systematic standard system, such as the ASEAN region, the Middle East region, and the African region. There are many export countries and regions involved in China's low-voltage electrical appliances, including the European Union, North America, Central and South America and Asia. The following highlights the relevant standards of low-voltage electrical appliances in Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries and regions, and analyzes and compares with the current national standards in China.
1. European Union
The International Electrotechnical Commission IEC is the earliest established international organization for electrotechnical standardization. Its purpose is to promote standardization in the field of electrotechnics and electronics in the world. The most important European standard setting bodies are CENELEC (European Electrotechnical Standardization Committee) and CEN (European Standardization Committee) and their joint organization CEN / CENELEC. The members of CENELEC are the national committees of 12 member states of the European Community and 7 member states of the European Free Trade Area (EFTA). Except for Iceland and Luxembourg, the remaining 17 countries are all members of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). In terms of business scope, CENELEC is in charge of all areas of electrical technology, while CEN manages other areas, and its member countries are the same as CENELEC. Except for Luxembourg, the other 18 countries are all members of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO).
Most EN standards and IEC standards adopt a parallel voting method, and the European Electrotechnical Standardization Committee CENELEC and the International Electrotechnical Commission IEC signed the Dresden agreement. The IEC standard is automatically adopted as the CENELEC standard (EN standard), so most EN standards There is not much difference from the IEC standard, and there is a one-to-one correspondence between the EN standard and the IEC standard.
2. North America
The North American standard system for low-voltage electrical products is based on the American Underwriters Laboratories UL standard and the Canadian National Standard CSA. The American Underwriters Laboratories (UL) is the most authoritative insurance agency in the United States. UL mainly formulates safety standards and actually manipulates the United States Standards for product safety certification.
The IEC standard is usually international, and the UL standard usually does not have a one-to-one correspondence with the IEC standard, and the standard structure and content are also quite different from the IEC standard. IEC concentrates general regulations and common regulations on low-voltage electrical products in IEC60947-1, and products that meet the corresponding product standards also comply with IEC60947-1. The UL standard is implemented independently, but also refers to other UL standards applicable to the parts or components of the product under test. Such as UL487 and UL1066 are suitable for circuit breakers; UL98 and UL977 are suitable for switches, isolators and fuse switches; UL508 is suitable for electromagnetic starters; UL1008 is suitable for automatic transfer switches; UL248 and UL512 are suitable for fuses. Using small circuit breakers as an example, in the GB and IEC / EN standard systems, each standard is applicable to a specific type of equipment (product). However, the standard system for miniature circuit breakers adopted in North America, such as the United States and Canada, is different from the IEC standard system. It is included in the UL489 and UL1077 standards.
The product standard UL489 "Plastic Case Circuit Breakers, Molded Case Switches and Circuit Breaker Enclosures" is relevant to all Molded Case Circuit Breakers, including Molded Case Circuit Breakers, Universal Circuit Breakers, Earth Fault Circuit Breakers, Fuse Circuit Breakers and Additional High Fault Protectionå™¨ ç‰ã€‚ Such as. UL1077 "Auxiliary Protector for Electrical Equipment" applies to auxiliary protectors that are expected to be used for overcurrent, overvoltage, and undervoltage protection of electrical appliances or electrical equipment. The branch circuit where the electrical equipment is located has provided overcurrent protection or does not require overcurrent protection. China's national standards for circuit breakers GB14048.2 "Low-voltage switchgear and control equipment Part 2: Circuit breakers", GB10963 "Electrical accessories household and similar devices overcurrent protection circuit breakers" are equivalent to the use of IEC60947-2 and IEC60898, IEC60947 â€”2 / GB14048.2 is related to all low-voltage circuit breakers, except household circuit breakers, and IEC60898 / GB10963 is related to household circuit breakers.
In terms of standard differences, the North American standard UL489 "Plastic Case Circuit Breakers, Molded Case Switches, and Circuit Breaker Enclosures" exists in the main test items such as temperature rise test, trip verification, short circuit test requirements, and electrical clearance requirements. There is a big difference, so a complete comparison of the standards for such products is required, including comparison of specific parameters, test sequence, number of test samples, test layout and evaluation criteria. In addition, the frequency of the power supply in the United States is different from China at 60Hz, and the voltage level in the United States is also different from China. Low voltage is mostly 277V / 480V for industrial power and 120V / 240V for lighting and civilian use.
The Japanese standard for low-voltage electrical products is based on the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS). The power supply system in Japan is an industrial voltage of 200V, a single-phase voltage of 100V for household appliances, a three-phase 200V, a power supply frequency of 50Hz in the Kanto region, and 60Hz in the Kansai region. In recent years, in order to integrate with the international market, the safety standards and test methods of electrical appliances in Japan are basically close to the IEC and ISO international standards, and basically all are equivalent or equivalent to adopt the IEC / ISO standard. There are 23 main standards for low-voltage electrical appliances in Japanese industrial standards, covering the main products of low-voltage electrical appliances, such as circuit breakers, fuses, motor starters, residual current operated circuit breakers, etc. The common low-voltage electrical appliances standard "Low-voltage switchgear and control equipment" JISC8201 series standard modification adopts IEC60947 series standard; "Low-voltage fuse" JISC8269 series standard is equivalent to adopting IEC60269 series standard; Circuit breaker (RCCB) "JISC8221 and" Residual current operated circuit breaker with overcurrent protection for household and similar uses (RCBO) "JISC8222 were revised to adopt IEC61008 and IEC61009 standards respectively.
The main difference between UL and IEC / EN / GB / JIS standards is that in addition to specifying the performance and test requirements of the product itself, it also covers the general requirements of electrical safety systems, related product standards and installation regulations. China â€™s standardization law stipulates: â€œThe state encourages the active adoption of international standardsâ€. China â€™s low-voltage electrical standards include national standards and industry standards, which mainly correspond to the IEC international standard system. Except for a few standards that modify and adopt the IEC standard, most of them are equivalent to the IEC Standards, combined with the actual situation in China, are formulated to form China's unique low-voltage electrical standard system.
Sensor Trash Can,Foot Sensor Automatic Dustbin,Foot Sensor Dustbin,Foot Sensor Trash Can
NINGBO ZIXING ELECTRONIC CO.,LTD. , https://www.zixingautobin.com